Usually, the minerals are formed sometimes by a geological process or sometimes by a volcanism process. In these days one of most economic activity is the Mining. It is by exploiting and extracting special stones, metals, minerals that with the time have been accumulated in the soil & some deep subsoil as deposits.
And the countries that are producing more in the field of Mining are Russia, Chile, Mexico, etc. There is a various different type of extraction. One is dedicated to the metals as iron – gold – mercury – lead – aluminium – copper – etc. All these metals are used as raw materials for the industry. The second is dedicated to searching the minerals called nonmetallic as emerald, marble, clay, granite, quartz etc. These types are used as raw materials of the jewellery industry and as in the construction.
And the last one is dedicated to the extraction of fuel minerals or energy known as coal, oil, coal and natural gas. It is important to remind that mining is also an old activity of mankind. From the very prehistoric times, man has used various minerals for manufacturing weapons and tools.
In the history there are very famous periods:
- Prehistoric mining.
- Ancient Egypt.
- The mining in the ancient Rome and Greece.
- Medieval Europe
- Classical Filipino civilization.
- Mining in American Continent.
- The modern period (The 20 century)
With the development of the mining industry automatically there are some effects in the environments because of the diverse mining and chemical processes. We can see the pollution in the rivers by some acids; we see the surfaces of the rivers with a reddish color. So the water is not suitable for drinking. The deforestation near to mines also changes the environments. About fifteen years back, two counties from South America named Peru and Chile were selected as the top producers of mains minerals. We also keep in mind the mines industry in the African continent which is still as emerging. Botswana and the Republic of Congo are very potential in the field of minerals and petrol too. There are two popular methods of exploitation, one is the opencast mining and another is the underground mining.